BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
|BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
2. BASIS OF PRESENTATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation and Accounting. The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Full House and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Except when otherwise required by accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) and disclosed herein, the Company measures all of its assets and liabilities on the historical cost basis of accounting.
Use of Estimates. The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with GAAP. These principles require the Company’s management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Fair Value and the Fair Value Input Hierarchy. Fair value measurements affect the Company’s accounting for net assets acquired in acquisition transactions and certain financial assets and liabilities. Fair value measurements are also used in its periodic assessments of long-lived tangible and intangible assets for possible impairment, including for property and equipment, goodwill, and other intangible assets. Fair value is defined as the expected price that would be received to sell an asset, or paid to transfer a liability, in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
GAAP categorizes the inputs used for fair value into a three-level hierarchy:
Methods and assumptions used to estimate the fair value of financial instruments are affected by the duration of the instruments and other factors used by market participants to estimate value. The carrying amounts for cash and equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, and accounts payable approximate their estimated fair value because of the short durations of the instruments and inconsequential rates of interest.
Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash. Cash equivalents include cash involved in operations and cash in excess of daily requirements that is invested in highly liquid, short-term investments with initial maturities of three months or less when purchased.
Restricted cash balances consist of funds placed into a construction reserve account to fund the completion of the Chamonix construction project, in accordance with the Company’s debt covenants.
Accounts Receivable. Accounts receivable consist primarily of casino, hotel and other receivables, are typically non-interest bearing, and are carried net of an appropriate reserve to approximate fair value. Reserves are estimated based on specific review of customer accounts including the customers’ willingness and ability to pay and nature of collateral, if any, as well as historical collection experience and current economic and business conditions. Accounts are written off when management deems the account to be uncollectible and recoveries of accounts previously written off are recorded when received. Management believes that, as of December 31, 2022, no significant concentrations of credit risk existed for which a reserve had not already been recorded.
Inventories. Inventories consist primarily of food, beverage and retail items, and are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Costs are determined using the first-in, first-out and the weighted average methods.
Property and Equipment. Property and equipment are stated at cost and are capitalized and depreciated, while normal repairs and maintenance are expensed in the period incurred. A significant amount of the Company’s property and equipment was acquired through business combinations, and therefore, were recognized at fair value measured at the acquisition date. Gains or losses on dispositions of property and equipment are included in operating expenses, effectively as adjustments to depreciation estimates.
Certain events or changes in circumstances may indicate that the recoverability of the carrying amount of property, plant and equipment should be assessed, including, among others, a significant decrease in market value, a significant change in the business climate in a particular market, or a current period operating or cash flow loss combined with historical losses or projected future losses. For assets to be held and used, the Company reviews for impairment whenever indicators of impairment exist. When such events or changes in circumstances are present, the Company estimates the future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset (or asset group) and its eventual disposition. These estimated future cash flows are consistent with those we use in our internal planning. If the undiscounted cash flows exceed the carrying value, no impairment is indicated. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, then the Company would recognize an impairment loss based on the fair value of the asset, typically measured using a discounted cash flow model.
Depreciation and amortization are computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets or the term of the lease, whichever is appropriate under the circumstances. The Company determines the estimated useful lives based on our experience with similar assets, estimated usage of the asset, and industry practice. Whenever events or circumstances occur, which change the estimated useful life of an asset, the Company accounts for the change prospectively.
Depreciation and amortization is provided over the following estimated useful lives:
Capitalized Interest. Interest costs associated with major construction projects are capitalized and included in the cost of the projects. When no debt is incurred specifically for construction projects, interest is capitalized on amounts expended using the weighted average cost of the Company’s outstanding borrowings. Capitalization of interest ceases when the project is substantially complete or construction activity is suspended for more than a brief period.
Leases. The Company determines if a contract is, or contains, a lease at inception or modification of the agreement. A contract is, or contains, a lease if there are identified assets and the right to control the use of an identified asset is conveyed for a period of time in exchange for consideration. Control over the use of the identified asset means that the lessee has both the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from the use of the asset and the right to direct the use of the asset.
For material leases with terms greater than a year, the Company records right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet, as measured on a discounted basis. For finance leases, the Company recognizes interest expense associated with the lease liability, as well as depreciation (or amortization) expense associated with the ROU asset, depending on whether those ROU assets are expected to transfer to the Company upon lease expiration. If ownership of a finance lease ROU asset is expected to transfer to the Company upon lease expiration, it is included with the Company’s property and equipment; other qualifying finance lease ROU assets, based on other classifying criteria under Accounting Standards Codification 842 (“ASC 842”), are disclosed separately on their own line, “Finance Lease Right-of-Use Assets, Net.” For operating leases, the Company recognizes straight-line rent expense.
The Company does not recognize ROU assets or lease liabilities for leases with a term of 12 months or less. However, costs related to short-term leases with terms greater than one month, which the Company deems material, are disclosed as a component of lease expenses when applicable. Additionally, the Company accounts for new and existing leases containing both lease and non-lease components (“embedded leases”) together as a single lease component by asset class for gaming-related equipment; as a result, the Company will not allocate contract consideration to the separate lease and non-lease components based on their relative standalone prices.
Finance and operating lease ROU assets and liabilities are recognized based on the present value of future minimum lease payments over the expected lease term at commencement, plus any qualifying initial direct costs paid prior to commencement for ROU assets. As the implicit rate is not determinable in most of the Company’s leases, management uses the Company’s incremental borrowing rate as estimated by third-party valuation specialists in determining the present value of future payments based on the information available at the commencement date and/or modification date. The expected lease terms include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise such options. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the expected lease term for operating leases. For finance leases, the ROU asset depreciates/amortizes on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the lease term or useful life of the ROU asset as applicable, and the lease liability accretes interest based on the interest method using the discount rate determined at lease commencement.
Goodwill and Indefinite-lived Intangible Assets. Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price of Bronco Billy’s Casino and Hotel, Silver Slipper Casino and Hotel, and Stockman’s Casino over the estimated fair value of their net tangible and other intangible assets on the acquisition date, net of subsequent impairment charges. The Company’s other indefinite-lived intangible assets primarily include certain license rights to conduct gaming in certain jurisdictions and trade names. Goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized, but are periodically tested for impairment. The impairment loss recognized is the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair value.
Tests of goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets start with a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is necessary to perform a quantitative test. If quantitative tests are performed, the evaluation of goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets requires the use of estimates about future operating results, valuation multiples and discount rates to determine the estimated fair value. Changes in the assumptions can materially affect these estimates. Thus, to the extent that gaming volumes deteriorate in the near future, discount rates increase significantly, or reporting units do not meet projected performance, the Company could have impairments to record in the future and such impairments could be material. These tests for impairment are performed annually during the fourth quarter or when a triggering event occurs.
Finite-lived Intangible Assets. The Company’s finite-lived intangible assets includes land lease acquisition costs and water rights. Finite-lived intangible assets are amortized over the shorter of their contractual or economic lives. The Company periodically evaluates the remaining useful lives of these intangible assets to determine whether events and circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining period of amortization and the possible need for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying amounts may not be recoverable. If the sum of the expected future cash flows (undiscounted and without interest charges) is less than the carrying amount, then the Company would recognize an impairment loss.
Debt Issuance Costs and Debt Discounts/Premiums. Debt issuance costs and debt discounts/premiums incurred in connection with the issuance of debt have been included as a component of the carrying amount of debt, and are amortized over the contractual term of the debt to interest expense, using the straight-line method, which approximates the effective interest method. When its existing debt agreements are determined to have been modified, the Company amortizes such costs to interest expense using the effective interest method over the terms of the modified debt agreement.
Accrued Club Points and Customer Loyalty Programs: Operating Revenues and Related Costs and Expenses. The Company’s revenues consist primarily of casino gaming, food and beverage, hotel, and other revenues (such as sports wagering, golf, RV park operations, and entertainment). The majority of its revenues are derived from casino gaming, principally slot machines.
Gaming revenue is the difference between gaming wins and losses, not the total amount wagered. The Company accounts for its gaming transactions on a portfolio basis, as such wagers have similar characteristics and it would not be practical to view each wager on an individual basis.
The Company sometimes provides discretionary complimentary goods and services (“discretionary comps”). For these types of transactions, the Company allocates revenue to the department providing the complimentary goods or services based upon its estimated standalone selling price, offset by a reduction in casino revenues.
Many of the Company’s customers choose to earn points under its customer loyalty programs. The Company’s properties have separate customer loyalty programs: the Slipper Rewards Club, the Bronco Billy’s Mile High Rewards Club, the Rising Star VIP Club, the Grand Lodge Players Advantage Club®, the Stockman’s Winner’s Club, and American Place’s Legacy Rewards. As points are accrued, the Company defers a portion of its gaming revenue based on the estimated standalone value of loyalty points being earned by the customer. The standalone value of loyalty points is derived from the retail value of food, beverages, hotel rooms, and other goods or services for which such points may be redeemed. A liability related to these customer loyalty points is recorded, net of estimated breakage and other factors, until the customer redeems these points under such loyalty programs for various benefits, such as “free casino play,” complimentary dining, or hotel stays, among others, depending on each property’s specific offers. Upon redemption, the related revenue is recognized at retail value within the department providing the goods or services. Unredeemed points are forfeited if the customer becomes and remains inactive for a specified period of time. Liabilities based on the standalone retail value of such benefits was $0.7 million for December 31, 2022 and $0.8 million for December 31, 2021, and these amounts are included in “other accrued liabilities” on the consolidated balance sheets.
Deferred Revenues: Market Access Fees from Sports Wagering Agreements. The Company entered into several agreements with various unaffiliated companies allowing for online sports wagering within Indiana, Colorado and Illinois, as well as on-site sports wagering at Rising Star Casino Resort, Bronco Billy’s Casino and Hotel, and The Temporary/American Place (the “Sports Agreements”). As part of these long-term Sports Agreements, the Company received one-time market access fees, which were recorded as long-term liabilities and are being recognized as revenue ratably over the initial contract terms (or as accelerated due to termination), beginning with the commencement of operations. On May 15, 2022, one of the Company’s contracted parties for sports wagering ceased operations, which created one available skin in each of Colorado and Indiana. Accordingly, this accelerated the recognition of $1.6 million of deferred revenue, which was recognized through the May 2022 termination date, as opposed to the remainingof the original 10-year term.
Indiana. The Company’s three Sports Agreements commenced operations in December 2019, April 2021, and December 2021. As noted above, one of these Sports Agreements ceased operations in May 2022. The Company continues to evaluate whether to utilize the remaining skin itself or to find a replacement operator for such skin. There is no certainty that the Company will be able to enter into an agreement with a replacement operator or successfully operate the skin itself.
Colorado. The Company’s three Sports Agreements commenced operations in June 2020, December 2020 and April 2021. As noted above, one of these Sports Agreements ceased operations in May 2022. In December 2022, the Company signed a Sports Agreement with a new third party for this available skin, which upfront fee was capitalized and will be amortized over the 10-year term of the agreement that contractually commenced in March 2023, but is still pending the receipt of customary gaming approvals. Under the Company’s three active Sports Agreements in Colorado, we receive a percentage of revenues (as defined), subject to annual minimums totaling $3 million.
Illinois. In May 2022, the Company signed a Sports Agreement for its sole Illinois sports skin and received an upfront fee of $5.0 million, which was capitalized and will be amortized over the eight-year term of the agreement that is expected to commence in Spring 2023, pending the receipt of customary gaming approvals. The Company will also receive a percentage of revenues (as defined), subject to a minimum of $5.0 million per year.
In addition to the market access fees, deferred revenue includes the annual prepayment of contracted revenue, as required in two of the Sports Agreements. As of December 31, 2022, $2.0 million of such deferred revenue has been recognized during the year.
Deferred revenues consisted of the following as discussed above:
Other Revenues. The transaction price of rooms, food and beverage, and retail contracts is the net amount collected from the customer for such goods and services. The transaction price for such contracts is recorded as revenue when the good or service is transferred to the customer over their stay at the hotel or when the delivery is made for the food, beverage, retail and other contracts. Sales and usage-based taxes are excluded from revenues.
Revenue by Source. The Company presents earned revenue as disaggregated by the type or nature of the good or service (casino, food and beverage, hotel, and other operations comprised mainly of retail, golf, entertainment, and contracted sports wagering) and by relevant geographic region within Note 11.
Advertising Costs. Costs for advertising are expensed as incurred, or the first time the advertising takes place, and are included in selling, general and administrative expenses. Total advertising costs were $2.7 million and $2.8 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.
Project Development and Acquisition Costs. Project development and acquisition costs consist of amounts expended on the pursuit of new business opportunities and acquisitions, as well as other business development activities in the ordinary course of business, which are expensed as incurred. During 2022, these costs were primarily associated with our efforts to fund the development of The Temporary during the preliminary stages of the project. In 2021, these costs were associated with our pursuit of available gaming licenses in Waukegan, Illinois, and Terre Haute, Indiana.
Preopening costs. Preopening costs are related to the preopening phases of new ventures, in accordance with accounting standards regarding start-up activities, and are expensed as incurred. These costs consist of payroll, advertising, outside services, organizational costs and other expenses directly related to both the Chamonix and The Temporary developments.
Stock-based Compensation. Stock-based compensation costs are measured at the grant date, based on the estimated fair value of the award using the Black-Scholes option pricing model for stock options, and based on the closing share price of the Company’s stock on the grant date for other stock-based awards. These costs are recognized as an expense on a straight-line basis over the employee’s requisite service period (the vesting period of the award) net of forfeitures, which are recognized as they occur, and are included within selling, general and administrative expense on the consolidated statements of operations.
Income Taxes. We classify deferred tax assets and liabilities, along with any related valuation allowance, as non-current on the consolidated balance sheets. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that included the enactment date. Valuation allowances are provided against DTAs when it is deemed more likely than not that some portion or all of the DTAs will not be realized within a reasonable time period.
Our income tax returns are subject to examination by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) and other tax authorities. Positions taken in tax returns are sometimes subject to uncertainty in the tax laws and may not ultimately be accepted by the IRS or other tax authorities. We assess our tax positions using a two-step process. A tax position is recognized if it meets a more likely than not” threshold, and is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likely of being realized. Additionally, we recognize accrued interest and penalties, if any, related to unrecognized tax benefits in income tax expense.
Reclassifications. To conform to the current-period presentation, the Company made certain minor financial statement presentation reclassifications to prior-period amounts. Such reclassifications had no effect on the previously reported results of operations or financial position.
Earnings (loss) per share. Earnings (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) applicable to common stock by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share reflects the additional dilution for all potentially-dilutive securities, including stock options, restricted stock and performance-based shares, using the treasury stock method.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted. The Company believes that there are no other recently-issued accounting standards not yet effective that are currently likely to have a material impact on its financial statements.